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This policy brief examines the accelerated development of Common Security and Defence policy in the two years following the publication of the ‘EU Global Strategy’, which has resulted in closer cooperation on security and defence issues.
This includes Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD), the European Defence Fund (EDF) and the new 2018 Capability Development Plan (CDP).
Second, this brief maps the further evolution of CSDP, an integral component of the Union’s Foreign and Security Policy.
Lastly, the paper argues for further coordination to address the continuing and substantial capability gaps in Europe’s security and defence policy.